Asked by: Jimuel Murphy
What is second species counterpoint?
30.3 Second Species Counterpoint
🔗 In second species, one writes two half notes against a cantus firmus in whole notes. (Second species can also include writing three half notes against a cantus firmus of dotted whole notes in .)
What intervals are allowed in second species counterpoint?
Not only must all three melodic intervals be consonant (both note-to-note intervals and the downbeat-to-downbeat interval), but each note in the counterpoint must be consonant with the cantus.
What are the species of counterpoint?
The first species is note-against-note counterpoint. The second species is two notes against one in the cantus firmus. The third species is four notes against one in the cantus firmus. The fourth species is the study of suspensions against a cantus firmus.
What should you avoid in counterpoint?
Avoid “hidden” parallel 4ths, 5ths, and octaves, which is movement by similar motion to a perfect 4th, 5th, or octave, unless one of the parts moves by step. You cannot use any interval more than three times in a row. Try to use multiple parallel thirds or sixths in a row (though only up to three, as stated in rule 5).
What is CF in music?
In music, a cantus firmus (“fixed melody”) is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition.
What is 3rd species counterpoint?
Beginning a third-species counterpoint
A third-species line can begin with four quarter notes in the first bar, or a quarter rest followed by three quarter notes. Regardless of rhythm, the first pitch in the counterpoint should follow the intervallic rules above.
What are the 5 species of counterpoint?
In 1725 Johann Joseph Fux published Gradus ad Parnassum (Steps to Parnassus), in which he described five species:
- Note against note;
- Two notes against one;
- Four notes against one;
- Notes offset against each other (as suspensions);
- All the first four species together, as “florid” counterpoint.
How do you avoid parallel fifths?
So how do we avoid consecutive fifths. The answer is we avoid writing two cards that are next to each other in the same inversion.
What are hidden fifths?
A hidden fifth occurs when an implied consonant passing note would create a parallel fifth. A hidden octave occurs when an implied consonant passing note would create a parallel octave.
Are parallel fourths okay?
Parallel fourths (consecutive perfect fourths) are allowed, even though a P4 is the inversion and thus the complement of a P5. The literature deals with them less systematically however, and theorists have often restricted their use.
Why are parallel fifths not allowed?
The issue is that the notes of a perfect fifth blend so well together that they almost sound like one note rather than two. This makes parallel fifths out of style IF that style demands independence of voices.