How are Just-Tuned scales beyond those of 12-notes constructed?



Asked by: Heather Hale

How many notes are in just intonation?





To produce a twelve-tone scale, one of them is arbitrarily discarded. The twelve remaining notes are repeated by increasing or decreasing their frequencies by a power of 2 (the size of one or more octaves) to build scales with multiple octaves (such as the keyboard of a piano).

How do I tune just intonation?

For example the minor second of any note is a note one semitone higher the major second of any note is the note two semitones higher etc.

What instruments use just tuning?

Just tuning is often used by ensembles (such as for choral or orchestra works) as the players match pitch with each other “by ear.” The “equal tempered scale” was developed for keyboard instruments, such as the piano, so that they could be played equally well (or badly) in any key. It is a compromise tuning scheme.

Why are there 8 notes in an octave?

The most harmonious interval between notes we hear is the octave, i.e. two tones played eight notes apart. In what is known as ‘octave equivalence’, notes that are eight tones apart have the same name, and roughly sound ‘the same’ to the human ear, but just in higher or lower versions.

Why do we use 12 tone equal temperament?





These are the frequency ratios we used to define what intervals are supposed to sound like for instance where you hear two notes an octave apart. The higher one is hitting your ear.

How does just intonation work?

just intonation, in music, system of tuning in which the correct size of all the intervals of the scale is calculated by different additions and subtractions of pure natural thirds and fifths (the intervals that occur between the fourth and fifth, and second and third tones, respectively, of the natural harmonic series

Why does just intonation sound better?

Our brains tell us that the first interval is more consonant, simply because it requires less effort to process than the second one. Of course, in the real world, things are rarely absolutely perfect and two tones in the ratio of 40001:50001 will be heard as “near enough” to 4:5.

What is wrong with just intonation?

An ideal system (for Western people) would be based on the natural harmonic series, because we love how harmonics sound. This kind of tuning system is called just intonation. It sounds lovely! Unfortunately, just intonation makes it impossible to change keys or tune your guitar.

What is 5 limit just intonation?

Five-limit tuning



The 5-limit consists of all just intonation intervals whose numerators and denominators are both products of the primes 2, 3, and 5; these are sometimes called regular numbers. Some examples of 5-limit intervals are 5/4, 6/5, 10/9 and 81/80.



Why is there no E Sharp?

Where is E or B Sharp? There is no definitive reason why our current music notation system is designed as it is today with no B or E sharp, but one likely reason is due to the way western music notation evolved with only 7 different notes in a scale even though there are 12 total semitones.

Are there 8 or 12 notes?

In the western musical scale, there are 12 notes in every octave. These notes are evenly distributed (geometrically), so the next note above A, which is B flat, has frequency 440 × β where β is the twelfth root of two, or approximately 1.0595.



Musical scale.

A 440
A flat 831
A 880

Are there 12 notes in an octave?

Note. This is called octave equivalence. And is why notes an octave apart are given the exact same name as each other for example a and a the interval of an octave is also the simplest. Relationship



Why are there 12 notes on a scale?

The idea behind twelve is to build up a collection of notes using just one ratio. The advantage to doing so is that it allows a uniformity that makes modulating between keys possible.

Who invented the 12 note scale?

Arnold Schoenberg

Arnold Schoenberg developed the influential 12-tone system of composition, a radical departure from the familiar language of major and minor keys.

What are the 12 notes on a piano?

In Western music, there are a total of twelve notes per octave, named A, A#, B, C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G and G#. The sharp notes, or ‘accidentals’, fall on the black keys, while the regular or ‘natural’ notes fall on the white keys. As well as sharps, the black keys can also be flats – ie, Bb, Db, Eb, Gb, and Ab.



How are music scales made?

Another relationship is the half step and the whole step also known as the semitone. And tone. The half step goes from a note to the one right next to it.

Are there 12 keys on a piano?

2. 12 Possible Keys in Music. There are 12 possible keys any particular song can be played in. This is because of the 12 notes on the piano keyboard, A, A#/Bb, B, C, C#/Db, D, D#/Eb, E, F, F#/Gb, G, and G#/Ab.