Asked by: Liz Guzman
In first species counterpoint, we begin with a cantus firmus (new or existing) and compose a single new line—called the counterpoint—above or below the cantus firmus. That new line contains one note for every note in the cantus: both the cantus firmus and the counterpoint will be all whole notes.
What are the rules of First species counterpoint?
First Species Counterpoint
- The counterpoint must begin and end on an interval of either unison, octave, or fifth, and usually only unison or octave.
- You cannot use unison intervals (the same note in both melodies at the same time) except at the beginning or end.
- Do not move both parts in parallel 4ths, 5ths, or octaves.
How do you write in counterpoint first species?
In first species counterpoint lines move at the same rate or note against note harmony and first species includes only consonances of thirds fifths sixths and octaves voices can move in four different
Are fourths allowed in first species counterpoint?
Dissonances (2nds, 4ths, 7ths) are not allowed in first species counterpoint. “Perfect” consonances (unisons, 5ths, 8ves, 12ths) may only be approached in contrary motion in order to avoid direct 5ths and direct 8ves (you may wish to review the Types of Motion).
What are the 5 species of counterpoint?
In 1725 Johann Joseph Fux published Gradus ad Parnassum (Steps to Parnassus), in which he described five species:
- Note against note;
- Two notes against one;
- Four notes against one;
- Notes offset against each other (as suspensions);
- All the first four species together, as “florid” counterpoint.
What is CF in music?
In music, a cantus firmus (“fixed melody”) is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition.
How can I write like Palestrina?
An imitation like that can usually be done in the upper fourth or the upper fifth. So let me just try out one time i will try it out upper fifth first so the upper fifth of the g is a d.
How do you write a good cantus firmus?
The following characteristics are typical of all well formed cantus firmi:
- length of about 8–16 notes.
- arhythmic (all whole notes; no long or short notes)
- begin and end on do.
- approach final tonic by step (usually re–do, sometimes ti–do)
- all note-to-note progressions are melodic consonances.
How do you write in counterpoint?
We also in counterpoint wants a bit of a conversation going between the two parts. So you know we've had one voice saying this and then the other voice is answered. Saying this.
What intervals are dissonant?
The intervals that are considered to be dissonant are the minor second, the major second, the minor seventh, the major seventh, and particularly the tritone, which is the interval in between the perfect fourth and perfect fifth. These intervals are all considered to be somewhat unpleasant or tension-producing.
What are the species in species counterpoint?
The first species is note-against-note counterpoint. The second species is two notes against one in the cantus firmus. The third species is four notes against one in the cantus firmus. The fourth species is the study of suspensions against a cantus firmus.
How do you write 5th species counterpoint?
By starting with the slower values the gradual acceleration now complements the rising line creating even more momentum towards the end.
What are the elements of counterpoint?
Good counterpoint requires two qualities: (1) a meaningful or harmonious relationship between the lines (a “vertical” consideration—i.e., dealing with harmony) and (2) some degree of independence or individuality within the lines themselves (a “horizontal” consideration, dealing with melody).
What are counterpoints two examples?
Noun The guitar and bass are played in counterpoint. The dressing is a refreshing counterpoint to the spicy chicken. The painting is a pleasant counterpoint to his earlier works. The music works in counterpoint to the images on the screen.
Does Bach use counterpoint?
Bach is the master of counterpoint which is a setting of different melodic lines against each other. He does it very rigorously, especially in the fugues, of course; pieces where the different lines imitate each other.
What does species counterpoint mean?
1 : a traditional method of instruction in 16th-century counterpoint based on five increasingly demanding types of two-voice contrapuntal writing based on a preexisting cantus firmus The discipline of species counterpoint was first put forth by Johann Joseph Fux in Gradus ad Parnassum (1725) as a tool for teaching
How many species of counterpoint are there?
Species counterpoint involves the addition of a melody above or below a given melody. The added melody (the counterpoint) becomes increasingly complex and interesting in each of the five species. The given melody is called cantus firmus, which means “firm” or “unalterable melody”.
How do you write a counter melody?
So the first thing to do is to identify breaks. Or potential breaks in your melody. Or where you feel like the melody needs support or additional momentum. So listen to your melody.